Overview Of Lenses
You’ll likely switch cameras every 3-5 years, but a decent lens can last a lifetime.  Here's a quick look at different types.

Focal Lengths: Zoom VS Prime
A prime lens can only shoot at one focal length.  The positive side is that these are significantly cheaper.  Zoom lenses allow for more flexibility and range, but not without a price.  The focal length of a lens also makes it suitable for certain types of shots.

50mm Lenses

A standard 50mm lens.

A 50mm lens is what best mimics the human eye.  This is a good training lens, and it’s fairly decent for portraits of people’s faces, or even close-ups of architecture.  This lens is cheap and a good for beginners due it's price and versatility.

Wide-angle: 35mm and Lower  

Wide-angle lenses are a must for those small spaces.

Beautiful horizons are usually shot with a wide-angle lens.  The iPhone has a 35mm lens.  It’s a fairly decent compromise for shooting both people and scenery.  The lower the focal length, the more that can fit into a scene, but this also increases the likelihood of stretching (distortion) around the edges.

Long-Range: 85mm and Above

Telephoto lenses are the sniper rifles of photography.

A portrait photographer would likely operate anywhere in the range of 85mm to 300mm.  The higher the focal length, the more isolated a subject becomes.  Sports and wildlife photographers will go upwards to 500mm for obvious reasons.  ​​​

Macro Lenses

Macro photography is great if you can't afford to travel.  You can explore many different worlds just in your back yard.

These are good for photographing small or even microscopic objects.  Medical professionals often use macro lenses to photograph teeth or skin conditions.  Anybody interested in insects would need a macro lens too.

Final Note
Lots of photographers spend their lives obsessing over lenses and dumping all their money into the best ones.  As an amateur, I suggest getting one prime lens that fits the type of photography you’d like to do and stick with it until you actually start making money in photography.  Don’t fall into the trap of thinking what you have isn’t good enough. 

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